Theory of partnership: Ladder of Citizen Participation - Sherry R Arnstein


This ladder was developed in 1969 in the context of citizen involvement in planning processes in the United States. It has been widely adapted in other sectors, including education. It provides a good basis for thinking about the nature of involvement beyond merely consultation and potentially even deeper than partnership.

You can download the original article, while sparqs has developed a version of the ladder that explains each step and can be an accessible discussion tool.

Item Number:168